Odisha is one of the 29 states of India, located in the east of India. It is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the north-east, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and north-west andAndhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasoreto Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. Odia (also known as Oriya) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 33.2 million according to the 2001 Census.
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the modern day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India and consisted predominantly of Oriya speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day. The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India’s national anthem, “Jana Gana Mana”. Cuttack was made the capital of the region byAnantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948 when Bhubaneswar replaced it as the capital.