Punjab, also spelt Panjab, is a state in North India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state capital is located inChandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The summer residence of the Governor of Punjab is at Shimla.
After the partition of India in 1947, the Punjab province of British India was divided between India and Pakistan. The Indian Punjabwas divided in 1966 with the formation of the new states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh alongside the current state of Punjab.
Punjab is the only state in India with a majority Sikh population.
The term Punjab comprises two words: “punj meaning five and ab meaning water, thus the land of five rivers.” The Greeksreferred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers. In Avesta, the sacred text of Zoroastrians, the Punjab region is associated with the ancient hapta həndu or Sapta Sindhu, the Land of Seven Rivers.
Agriculture is the largest industry in Punjab. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Punjab also has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are located in “Steel Town”—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district.